Determining the Accuracy of Self and Partner Anal Exams for Detecting Anal Abnormalities.
Anal cancer is a common cancer among gay, bisexual and other men having sex with men (MSM). Its annual incidence is approximately 50-fold and 5-fold higher among HIV-positive MSM and HIV-negative MSM, respectively, compared to the rest of the general population. Like cervical cancer, it is primarily caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV). Unlike cervical cancer, there is no efficacious treatment for anal precancers as there is for cervical precancers. To date, randomized clinical trials have failed to find an efficacious treatment although other trials continue; thus, professional societies recommend an annual digital ano-rectal exam (DARE) for detection of anal abnormalities, including small tumors, among all MSM. But DARE is underutilized, e.g., most persons, regardless of HIV do not receive an annual DARE and most HIV physicians do not perform the exam. Therefore, alternative methods for early detection are needed because early detection of small tumors is associated with >85% 5-year survival.
The long-term goal of this study is to decrease morbidity and mortality from anal cancer by increasing detection of anal canal tumors through self- or partner-palpation of the anal canal. Preliminary data indicate these exams are feasible and highly acceptable among MSM. In a diverse sample of 200 MSM, 93% of men correctly classified their anal self-exam (ASE) or anal companion exam (ACE) as either normal or abnormal, and 94% said the exams were acceptable. Given these findings, our overall objective is to determine the viability of the ASE and ACE by assessing exam accuracy and consistency of results in two clinic sites. Accuracy will be defined as concordance between clinician DARE and participant exam. The central hypothesis is that both ASE and ACE at visit 1 will have ≥70% sensitivity and ≥90% specificity using the clinician DARE as the gold standard at each of two visits. We will test the hypothesis with three specific aims: 1) Estimate ASE and ACE sensitivity and specificity; 2) Determine independent factors associated with ASE and ACE concordance; and 3) Determine the impact of ASE, ACE, and DARE on survival and quality of life, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these strategies among HIV+ and HIV- MSM and transgender persons. The aims will be accomplished with a study in Houston and Chicago with a sample of 100 couples (i.e., 200 partners) and 600 single persons (one-half HIV-positive), aged >=25 years, who will perform a clinician-taught ASE or ACE. The individual's ASE and partner's ACE will then be compared with the clinician's DARE. The assessment will be done at each of two visits, spaced six-months apart, to assess retention of exam accuracy.
At the end of visit 1, one-half of participants, i.e., 300 individuals and 50 couples (stratified by city) will be randomly selected and encouraged to practice the ASE/ACE three months before Visit 2. Study staff will make reminder calls (or emails/texts) and follow-up calls for the scheduled practice session. At the follow-up calls, study staff will record the participant's result for the self/companion exam and the level of anxiety and pain, if any, associated with the exam. If the participant reports more than minimal pain and anxiety, they will be asked to return to the clinic for an HCP exam. Regardless of prior results, all persons will be asked to return for Visit 2.
25 Years and up
Accepting Healthy Volunteers?
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
- Chicago or Houston Metro Residents
- Persons who had sex with men in the prior five years
- Cis-gendered men and transgender persons
- Age: 25 years and over
- Access to medical care for referral or treatment
- Spanish or English speakers/readers
- Individuals or couples
- HIV+ or HIV-
- Persons with or without comorbidities and physical disabilities
- Unresolved health care provider's diagnosis of anal condyloma, hemorrhoids or anal cancer
- DARE in the prior three months
- Plans to move in the following six months
- Anal Cancer