A Phase II Trial of Epigenetic Priming in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia
The overall aim of this study is to determine if epigenetic priming with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DMTi) prior to chemotherapy blocks is tolerable and carries evidence of a clinical efficacy signal as determined by minimal residual disease (MRD), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Tolerability for each of the agents, as well as total reduction in DNA methylation and outcome assessments will be done to simultaneously obtain preliminary biological and clinical data for each DMTi in parallel. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: - Evaluate the tolerability of five days of epigenetic priming with azacitidine and decitabine as a single agent DMTi prior to standard AML chemotherapy blocks. - Evaluate the change in genome-wide methylation burden induced by five days of epigenetic priming and the association of post-priming genome-wide methylation burden with event-free survival among pediatric AML patients. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES - Describe minimal residual disease levels following Induction I chemotherapy in patients that receive DMTi. - Estimate the event-free survival and overall survival of patients receiving a DMTi prior to chemotherapy courses.
Treatment will consist of 5 blocks of conventional chemotherapy: Induction I, Induction II, Intensification I, Intensification II, and Intensification III over approximately 5 months.
RANDOMIZATION: Patients will be randomized to receive one of two DMTi (azacitidine or decitabine) for 5 days prior to Induction I. Intrathecal (ITHMA) treatments will be given right before treatment on this study or on Day 1 of Induction I treatment. Leucovorin will be given 24-30 hours following ITHMA.
INDUCTION I CHEMOTHERAPY: Patients receive cytarabine, daunorubicin, and etoposide.
INDUCTION II CHEMOTHERAPY; Patients receive their assigned DMTi for 5 days followed by fludarabine, cytarabine, G-CSF, and idarubicin.
Patients are then evaluated and assigned to either the low-risk arm, intermediate-risk arm, or the high-risk arm for Intensification therapy.
Patients with ≥ 5% blasts following Induction II will be considered refractory and will go off therapy. The rare high risk patient with an MRD < 0.1% following Induction I may proceed directly to stem cell transplant (SCT) after Induction II - if a suitable donor is available and the transplant can be performed without delay. MDS patients may proceed to SCT once they have achieved MRD <0.1% irrespective of the number of chemotherapy courses received.
INTENSIFICATION I CHEMOTHERAPY - LOW-RISK AML, INTERMEDIATE-RISK AML, and HIGH-RISK AML with no donor: Patients receive cytarabine and etoposide. After administration of 5 days of a DMTi prior to Inductions I and II satisfies a tolerability determination criterion, patients will also receive their randomly assigned DMTi for five days prior to cytarabine and etoposide.
INTENSIFICATION II CHEMOTHERAPY - LOW RISK AML, INTERMEDIATE-RISK AML, and HIGH-RISK AML with no donor: Patients receive mitoxantrone and cytarabine. After administration of 5 days of a DMTi prior to Inductions I and II satisfies a tolerability determination criterion, patients will also receive their randomly assigned DMTi for five days prior to mitoxantrone and cytarabine.
INTENSIFICATION I CHEMOTHERAPY - HIGH-RISK AML with a donor: Patients receive mitoxantrone and cytarabine followed by stem cell transplant (SCT). Treatment related AML patients and patients with treatment related MDS who have a donor but are not able to receive a SCT without delay will proceed to HR Intensification III and receive erwinia asparaginase and cytarabine. After administration of 5 days of a DMTi prior to earlier courses satisfies a tolerability criterion, patients will also receive their randomly assigned DMTi for five days prior to mitoxantrone and cytarabine or erwinia asparaginase and cytarabine.
Treatment related AML patients and treatment related MDS patients that are not able to receive a SCT should go off treatment following Intensification II.
INTENSIFICATION III CHEMOTHERAPY - INTERMEDIATE-RISK AML and HIGH-RISK AML with no donor: Patients receive erwinia asparaginase and cytarabine. After administration of 5 days of a DMTi prior to earlier courses satisfies a tolerability criterion, patients will also receive their randomly assigned DMTi for five days prior to erwinia asparaginase and cytarabine.
21 Years and under
Accepting Healthy Volunteers?
- Diagnostic criteria: Patients must have one of the following diagnoses:
- Acute myeloid leukemia fulfilling the criteria of the WHO Classification (see Appendix I), or
- >5% but < 20% marrow myeloblasts and evidence of a clonal de novo AML genetic abnormality [e.g., t(8;21), inv(16), t(9;11)], or
- Myeloid sarcoma (also referred to as extramedullary myeloid tumor, granulocytic sarcoma, or chloroma), with or without evidence of a leukemia process in the bone marrow or peripheral blood, with confirmation of myeloid differentiation, or
- High grade myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with greater than 5% blasts, or
- Patients with treatment related myeloid neoplasms including AML and MDS, provided their cumulative anthracycline dose has not exceeded 230 mg/m2 doxorubicin equivalents.
- Other criteria - Patients must meet all the following criteria:
- Age > 28 days and < 22 years at time of study entry inclusive, and
- No prior therapy for this malignancy except for one dose of intrathecal therapy and the use of hydroxyurea or low-dose cytarabine (100-200 mg/m2 per day for one week or less for hyperleukocytosis), and
- Written informed consent according to institutional guidelines, and
- Female patients of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within 2 weeks prior to enrollment, and
- Male and female participants of reproductive potential must use an effective contraceptive method during the study and for a minimum of 6 months after study treatment.
- Down syndrome
- Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)
- BCR-ABL1 chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (CML-BC)
- Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)
- Fanconi anemia (FA)
- Kostmann syndrome
- Shwachman syndrome
- Other bone marrow failure syndromes or low grade (<5% bone marrow blasts) MDS.
- Use of concomitant chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy other than as specified in the protocol.
- Use of investigational agents within 30 days or any anticancer therapy for this malignancy within 2 weeks before study entry with the exception of IT therapy, hydroxyurea, or low-dose cytarabine as specified in the protocol document. The patient must have recovered from all acute toxicities from any previous therapy.
- Systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or other infection not controlled (defined as exhibiting ongoing signs/symptoms related to the infection and without improvement, despite appropriate antibiotics or other treatment).
- Pregnant or lactating.
- Any significant concurrent disease, illness, or psychiatric disorder that would compromise patient safety or compliance, interfere with consent, study participation, follow up, or interpretation of study results.
- Prior chemotherapy, with the exception of hydroxyurea or low-dose cytarabine as specified in the protocol document. The patient must have recovered from all acute toxicities from any previous therapy.
- Patients with treatment related myeloid neoplasms with cumulative anthracyclines greater than 230 mg/m2 doxorubicin equivalents.