A Phase III Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection Versus Open Resection for Rectal Cancer
This study is being done to compare two types of surgery currently used for rectal cancer. The two types of surgery are laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection and open laparotomy rectal resection. Although laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection is being used for rectal cancer in some medical centers, the effectiveness of this type of surgery compared to open surgery is unknown. The study will compare the safety and effectiveness of the surgeries, recovery from surgery in the hospital, overall recovery from surgery and cancer outcome.
To test the hypothesis that laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer is not inferior to open rectal resection, based on a composite primary endpoint of oncologic factors which are indicative of a safe and feasible operation.
1. To assess patient-related benefit of laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer vs.
open rectal resection (blood loss, length of stay, pain medicine utilization)
2. To assess disease free survival and local pelvic recurrence at two years.
3. To assess quality of life, sexual function, bowel and stoma function at scheduled time points throughout the trial.
Patients will be evaluated after surgery to determine the need for subsequent care based on the final pathology. Patients should not start treatment on any other investigative trial involving intervention or invasive diagnostic procedures ≤ 30 days following surgery to enable a complete evaluation of post-operative adverse events and complications occurring within 30 days of surgery. Patients are followed periodically for up to 5 years post surgery.
18 Years and up
Accepting Healthy Volunteers?
1. Histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum (≤ 12 cm from the anal verge)
2. T3, N0, M0, T1-3, N1-2, M0 disease as determined by pre-neoadjuvant therapy CT scans and pelvic MRI or transrectal ultrasound. Patients with T4 disease are not eligible.
3. Completion of pre-operative 5FU based chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Capecitabine may be substituted for 5FU.
4. Age ≥ 18 years
5. ECOG (Zubrod) Performance Status ≤ 2
6. Body Mass Index (BMI) ≤ 34
7. No evidence of conditions that would preclude use of a laparoscopic approach (eg, multiple previous major laparotomies, severe adhesions)
8. No systemic disease (cardiovascular, renal, hepatic) that would preclude surgery. No other severe incapacitating disease:
- ASA IV: A patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life. OR
- ASA V: A moribund patient who is not expected to survive without the operation.
9. No concurrent or previous invasive pelvic malignancy (cervical, uterine and rectal) within five years prior to registration
10. No history of psychiatric or addictive disorders or other conditions that, in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude the patient from meeting the study requirements.
NOTE: Incompetent patients are not eligible for this trial.